What formalities does a bachelor thesis have to fulfill? From cover pages to quoting to formatting your thesis: here you will find everything you need to know about the formalities of scientific papers.

To successfully complete your bachelor’s degree, you must complete a thesis. Of course, subject matter and content play an important role, but compliance with formal criteria is also essential for achieving a good final grade. In the following you will find out which formalities you have to consider when creating your bachelor thesis.

The structure of the bachelor thesis

Each scientific paper is divided into several sections, some of which are optional and others binding. Your bachelor thesis should in principle be structured as follows:

  • Cover sheet
  • Contents
  • Formula, List of Figures and / or Tables
  • text (introduction, main part and conclusion)
  • Bibliography
  • Attachment
  • Statutory declaration

The cover sheet

As the first page and accordingly as the visiting card of your Bachelor thesis, the cover sheet should be clear and visually appealing. Basically, the cover sheet allows the examiner to directly record the topic of your Bachelor thesis as well as all other important key data at a glance.

Inform yourself in advance, which specific requirements your university places on the layout and content of the cover page.

In principle, however, the following information should be included on the cover sheet:

  • Name of your university
  • Name of the faculty
  • Name of the department
  • Name of the first and second supervisor
  • Title of the bachelor thesis
  • Purpose of the work (“to obtain the academic degree of Bachelor of …”)
  • Your first and last name
  • Your matriculation number
  • Due date

In order to make the cover page of your Bachelor thesis more appealing, it is often worth using the logo of your university, for example in the form of a watermark. Inform yourself in advance at your university if the use of the logo is permitted for this purpose. Make sure that the resolution is perfect, because your cover sheet should be absolutely professional.

Note: The cover page of your bachelor thesis does not contain a page numbering!

Choose a clear and easy-to-read font. Under no circumstances should you use playful or even a combination of different fonts on your cover page.


The table of contents lists all chapters and sub-chapters with their associated page numbers, thus providing a clear overview of the structure. The reader should be able to get a quick overview of the essential aspects of your bachelor thesis. Make sure that the individual chapters and subchapters follow a common thread and are thematically strung together.

The subheadings can be numbered using Roman or Arabic numbers, as well as letters or a combination of both. Make sure that the respective subheadings well outline the content and avoid too detailed subchapters. More than three stages must be avoided.

Formula, mapping and / or table directory

If your Bachelor thesis contains formulas, illustrations and / or tables, these must be listed in a separate directory.

All illustrations are numbered “Abb.” And listed according to the order of their use within the Bachelor thesis. For tables, you use the abbreviation “Tab.” In addition to the numbering.

The map and table directories are two separate directories and should be created separately with their respective headings. If your Bachelor thesis contains an illustration first, then the list of figures follows directly after the table of contents and only then the table index.

The text

The heart of your bachelor thesis is the text part. It begins with an introduction in which you ask your research question and place the topic in your field of expertise. Then you briefly summarize what awaits the reader in the present work and how the work is structured.

Following is the main part of your bachelor thesis, which is divided into meaningful, successive chapters. It begins with theoretical investigations and discussions on your chosen topic. Then you describe the methodology and the procedure of your research and present the results.

In the conclusion you summarize your findings, evaluate them and draw a conclusion. You should be careful to refer directly to the research question formulated by you at the beginning. Reflect what new insights you could achieve and to what extent some aspects may remain unclear.

In terms of scope, the introduction and conclusion should amount to around ten percent of the total work.

By the way, it does not make sense to start with the introduction. If you have already written a large part of your bachelor thesis, it will be easier for you to deduce the topic, to give an overview of the work and to write a suitable introduction.


In the bibliography you list all the direct sources used in your bachelor thesis, from which you quoted. These should be put in alphabetical order for better readability. For a variety of sources it is advisable to separate primary from secondary sources in order to make the bibliography clearer.

It is essential to make sure that the bibliography of your Bachelor thesis is complete.


In the appendix, you include any attachments that are relevant to your bachelor thesis and that complement it, but are disturbing in the body text due to the mass or size.

For example, it may be materials from your own research such as questionnaires, transcriptions or interview protocols.

Within the text, you should quote the important passages, but include the complete material in the appendix. Extensive or large statistics, tables, exemplary texts or pictures also have space here.
The appendix is numbered so that you can refer directly to each attachment in the text of your bachelor thesis.

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